Martin Scheinin is a Finnish professor of International Law and Human Rights at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy, and former UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights while countering terrorism (2005 - 2011). Furthermore, he is President of the International Association of Constitutional Law. He is a former member of the Human Rights Committee (1997 - 2004) and the former Director of the Abo Akademi Institute for Human Rights (1998 - 2008). As UN Special Rapporteur on the protection of human rights while countering terrorism, Scheinin gave recommendations to governments on inter alia the right to a fair trial in the context of prosecuting terrorist suspects, the protection of economic, social and cultural rights in the context of countering-terrorism, refugee protection, profiling and definitions of terrorism. Currently, he is the leader of the EU-funded research projectSurveillance: Ethical Issues, Legal Limitations and Efficiency.